Files referenced (scroll to bottom for links):
Tutorial-RdwyCalcs.agi (completed file)
Time Estimate: 1 hour
This tutorial assumes that the user is familiar with AGi32's Roadway Optimizer tool. The pole spacings used in this tutorial are assumed to have been generated by Roadway Optimizer. (Please see the separate tutorial for Roadway Optimizer.)
Roadway calculations in AGi32 differ in several ways from other calculations.
- They follow one of several roadway standards, such as RP-8-00 from the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES). The standards define the calculation metrics and design criteria, as well as calculation point spacing, observer distance, etc.
- For many of the metrics, there is an Observer, located in a specific position and with a defined orientation, angle of view, and age.
- The method of defining the boundary of the roadway calculation grid depends on the direction of traffic flow.
- If there are any surfaces present in the model, they must be defined as either Roadway Pavement Surface or Roadway Contributing Surface. Otherwise, they will not contribute to the calculation results.
AGi32 includes default input parameters for grid placement and point spacing based on five roadway standards in use around the world:
- The IES method uses the algorithms in IESNA RP-8-14
- The CIE method uses the algorithms in CIE 140-2000
- The Australia and New Zealand methods use the algorithms in Australia/New Zealand Standard 1158.2-2005
- The BSEN method uses the algorithms in the 13201-3.2003 document
- The ABNT method uses the algorithms in the Brazilian document NBR5101-2012
For more details on these standards and their metrics, open the Help topic called Roadway Standard - Calculation Metrics. In this tutorial, we will use IES RP-8-14.
Locate luminaires and calculation grids per results presumably obtained from Roadway Optimizer and following IES RP-8-14 criteria. Calculate and display results in a Summary. Use Project Manager and View Manager to show the various calculation grids in separate windows on the screen.
Step 1 – Import CAD background and translate origin.
Step 2 – Define a luminaire.
Step 3 – Place luminaires using the Array command.
Step 4 – Specify roadway calculation grids.
Step 5 – Calculation grids: Label and Summary.
Step 6 – Change display to show other metrics.
Step 7 – Use View Manager to create an additional window in which to view results.
Step 8 – Use Project Manager to assign calculation grids to specific views.
Step 1 – Import CAD background and translate origin
Our first step is to import a CAD drawing that will serve as the background for our model. The CAD file that we need is one of several Sample Files that are used in the tutorials. If you have not already done so, you will need to download the Sample Files from the AGi32 website. (See the Introduction page of this tutorial for download and installation instructions.)
After you have downloaded and installed the Sample Files onto your computer, return to AGi32.
In Model Mode, click on the CAD Import button on the Common Toolbar near the upper-left corner of the screen, or click on File on the Main Menu bar (upper-left corner) and select Import.
From the Import dialog, navigate to the CAD Sample Files folder and select the file called Tutorial-RdwyCalcs.dwg. Click on the file name and then the OK button.
When the Import File dialog appears, click on the small CAD Viewer button to see the file being imported. The image that opens shows the layers that have been selected by the Smart Select process, which selects all layers that are On and not frozen. The image can be moved and/or resized, if you like. We will accept the layers selected by Smart Select.
Next, make sure that the units of Feet are specified in both cells following Units Specified In CAD File and Units Will Be Converted To.
Click on the Advanced Options tab.
Change the Curve Increment to 5 degrees. AGi32 converts curves to segmented straight lines. A 5-degree curve increment will give a better appearance to curved lines in outdoor projects than the default 15-degree setting.
Click the OK button to begin the import process. The secondary window will appear, indicating that the import was successful and showing a summary of the entities included in the import. Click OK again.
The imported drawing is displayed zoomed out to Extents ++.
Check the scale
Zoom in with your mouse wheel (roll it away from you) or with the Zoom – Window command so that you are close enough to measure between the station markers.
Click on the Measure Distance command on the toolbar (just above the Calculate button).
Click on the tick mark next to one of the station marker values.
Slide your mouse to the next marker and click on it. Right click to end the command.
The total length is displayed (temporarily) near the last click.
It should say 100 or something very close to that. (It doesn’t have to be exact, just close enough to verify that the scale is correct.) If it is approximately 100, then your scale is correct. If not, you will need to begin a new file and repeat the steps above.
As you move your cursor over the drawing, notice that the X and Y coordinates are seven digits long, not including decimal values. It can be difficult to click precisely when the coordinates are so large, and typing large values can also be error prone. We will translate the Origin to a more convenient location, closer to the drawing.
On the Main Menu Bar, click on Tools, and then select Translate Origin.
On the Command Line (lower-left corner of your screen), AGi32 is asking for the new origin. Type these values in the field in the lower-right corner: 1160654,1819894. (No space after the comma.) Hit <Enter>.
The origin may be reset to its original location during the CAD Export process, if desired.
Step 2 – Define a Luminaire
Our second step is to define the luminaire that we wish to use in our street lighting project.
In the Luminaire Toolkit, click on the Define button (or Menu: Add – Luminaire – Define).
Click on the Instabase button at the top of the dialog to access the area containing the databases that are maintained in the Cloud for AGi32.
When the Instabase In The Cloud (IITC) dialog opens, the luminaire photometric data supplied with AGi32 is available for download.
Note: If you have not yet created a User Profile, you will need to do this first. Please see Step 1 of the Roadway Optimizer Tutorial.
On the View/Search tab, at the top of the dialog, click on the Select Manufacturers link.
Scroll to the bottom of the dialog and select Z-Lux Sample Instabase (22) (private). Then click OK (bottom of dialog):
Now we are in the main part of the IITC dialog, with the Z-Lux Sample Instabase displayed. We may now either perform a Search (using the fields on the left side of the dialog) for luminaires that meet specific criteria, or simply select the luminaire(s) that we wish to download for our project. We will do the latter.
NOTE: If you have been in IITC and downloaded luminaires already, they will be pre-selected. You will want to first click on the Unselect All button at the bottom of the dialog to avoid downloading them again.
- Click on the “-” next to the ZL-Indoor node to collapse it. (Collapsing this node saves a bit of scrolling.)
- Under the ZL-Outdoor node, in the ZL-Area group, select the zlroad3.ies luminaire. You will see its characteristics shown to the right.
- At the bottom of the dialog, click Download.
As this luminaire does not have a luminaire symbol included with its photometric data file, we will have to select one.
Select Pole as the Mounting Type.
Select the Box Down symbol.
Leave the check mark in the box to Include In Luminaire definition.
This returns us to the Define Luminaire dialog. The selected luminaire is loaded into the Defined Luminaires section at the top of the dialog. We will make a couple of changes to the luminaire to make it more appropriate for our project.
First, click on the Relabel button (right side of dialog) and enter a new Label: A.
Next, enter a Description: 310W HPS.
Note that there is a check mark for Pole and a dot for Dynamic: Attach to Z = 0. The check mark is there because we checked “Include in Lum. Def.” in the Smart Symbols dialog. “Dynamic” means that the length of the pole will change with the mounting height. Z=0 indicates the elevation of the bottom of the pole. (It might be appropriate to use a different value, such as 30, if the bottom of the pole should be above ground level, such as on an elevated segment of freeway.)
Change the Arm Length to 6.5 feet.
Note: The Minimum Arm Length is not the physical arm. It is the length necessary in AGi32 to move the pole out of the middle of the luminaire. Any physical arm length desired should be added to this value. Our luminaire will have an actual physical arm of 6 feet.
Click on the Specify button to bring up the Light Loss Factor calculator.
Enter these light loss factors:
- Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD): 0.9
- Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD): 0.8
- Ballast Factor: 0.95
The combined LLF is displayed at the bottom: 0.684. Click OK to return to the Define Luminaire dialog.
Click the Add/Redefine button to keep all of these changes.
Close this dialog.
Step 3 – Place luminaires using Array command
Before we can place our luminaires, we need some kind of idea as to the spacing that we should use. This can be determined by using Roadway Optimizer. There is a separate Roadway Optimizer Tutorial that teaches how to use that tool. For the purpose of this tutorial, we will assume that this has already been done and that we have the results.
For the purpose of this tutorial, we will follow RP-8-00 from the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES). RP-8-00 will provide the lighting criteria that we need to meet for our road, based on these assumptions: Collector road, Medium potential for pedestrian conflict. Following the Luminance Method, (Table 3 in RP-8-00), our design criteria are: average pavement luminance = 0.6 cd/m2, average/minimum luminance = 3.5, maximum/minimum luminance = 6.0, and veiling luminance ratio = 0.4. (The veiling luminance ratio is the maximum veiling luminance divided by the average pavement luminance.)
We also need to know the type of pavement our road surface is. We will assume that we have an asphalt road with a rough texture and is slightly specular in its reflectance characteristics. This would be category R3 pavement.
Based on these assumptions, a staggered pole layout,and a desired mounting height of 35 feet, Roadway Optimizer returns a pole spacing of 225 feet (between poles on one side of the road).
In the Luminaire Toolkit, set the mounting height (MH) at 35 feet.
Snap should be enabled and set at 2 feet.
Ortho and SnapTo should be disabled.
Because the road varies in width, we will use the Array command to place luminaires in the segment shown here, where the width is relative consistent.
In the Luminaire Toolkit, click on the Array button. (Or, Menu - Modify - Luminaire - Array - Rectangular.)
Make these selections and settings:
- - Use Current Luminaire Specification (New Location)
- - Luminaire Orientation: Perpendicular to Array (Along, Top-Bottom)
- - Set Spacing: L-R = 225; T-B = 0
- - No Offset
For the first luminaire location, click on the X,Y location 420,394, or enter these coordinates (no space) in the field in the lower-right corner of the screen and hit Enter. Drag your cursor to the right and click (enter) the coordinates for the second point of the array boundary, 1322,422. (Much easier to type or click on these 3-digit coordinates than on the 7-digit original versions!)
The luminaires can be seen along the south side of the street. Next, we will place luminaires along the north side of the street, and then we will adjust their locations as needed.
Click on the Array button again.
Keep the same settings as last time. Click OK.
Keep the Snap value at 2.
Click or enter the coordinates of the first luminaire of the grid at 1432,486.
Drag your mouse to the left and click or enter the opposite of the array boundary at 300,448.
Note that since we created the array from right to left this time, the luminaires are now facing the opposite direction.
We now have luminaires located in a staggered layout on both sides of the street. However, some of the positions need to be adjusted. We will use the Move - Luminaire command for this.
Using your mouse wheel, zoom in a bit on a luminaire whose position needs to be adjusted. The luminaire that is second from the left on the north side of the street is in the street instead of on the curb.
Click on the Move Luminaire command. (Or, from the main menu bar, select Modify - Luminaire - Move - Same Aiming Angles - Single.)
The Move command in AGi32 involve three steps: What to move, where to move it from, and where to move it to. Note that the "from" point need not be on the luminaire itself. The luminaire will maintain the same position relative to the cursor when you click (or enter) the new location.
There is now a pick box attached to the cursor. Place the pick box over the luminaire to be moved and click.
The Command Line (lower-left corner) is asking for the point to be moved from. Click on the back end of the luminaire's arm, where the pole is.
The third step is to slide your cursor back to a new position, out of the street. Disabling Snap (F9 on your keyboard) will make it easier to select an appropriate position.
Check for other luminaires that might be in the street, or possibly in a driveway.
How many luminaires have we placed? A quick way to find out is by opening the Define Luminaire dialog again.
Click on the Define button. The number of locations of each define luminaire type is displayed in the third column in the luminaire list.
Click the Close button.
Step 4 – Specify roadway calculation grid
Roadway grids do not behave like other calculation grids in AGi32. Any object or room surfaces that are present must be designated as Roadway Pavement or Roadway Contributor surfaces (done in Surface Edit). Otherwise, they will be ignored and will not contribute to the calculation results. At this point in the project, we do not have any objects, but it's important to keep this in mind.
Go to the Calculations Toolkit by clicking on the Calculations heading in the Model Toolkit. Click on the Roadway Calculations button. (Or, on main menu bar, Add - Calculations - Road.)
Roadway grids may be specified that follow one of several roadway lighting standards. Most common in North America is Recommended Practice 8 (RP-8-14) from the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES). The default standard is IES RP-8-14, which is what we will use.
Set the Number of Lanes In The Direction Of Travel = 2. Note that the Number of Lanes In the Opposite Direction is grayed out when RP-8-14 is selected; RP-8-14's criteria apply to the driver's side of the road only.
Leave the dot in the radio button for Set Spacing and the value set at 16.4 feet. (This is 5 meters, the maximum value allowed by RP-8-14.)
For the pavement type, we will select R3. Click the drop-down arrow for the R-Table selection to see the choices here. R1, R2, R3, and R4 are defined by RP-8-14. The rest are defined by other standards.
Notice the four metrics listed to the left. These are the metrics defined in RP-8-14. In other standards, this list will change. You may choose to calculate all or only some of the metrics listed. All are checked by default, which is what we will go with for our example.
In this list, click once on Illuminance to give it focus.
In the Selected Metric Summary section, increase the Decimals value to 2, and then click the Apply to All Metrics button.
Click in the Color field and change the color to red.
Now click once on Visibility Level (STV) to give it focus.
Place a checkmark in the box for Weighted Average VL (STV).
Change the Color to blue.
Finally, click once on Veiling Luminance to give it focus.
Put a checkmark in the box for Max Lv/Lavg Ratio.
Change the Color to Green.
Before exiting this dialog, notice the small graphic on the right side. This indicates the order in which the grid's boundaries will be specified. (This was also mentioned in the Hint that popped up before the dialog opened.)
Note: For the definitions of these metrics, open the Help topic called Roadway Standard - Calculation Metrics, and then scroll down to the RP-8-14 metrics.
Click OK to exit this dialog.
AGi32's Command Line is asking us to click or enter the coordinates for the first point defining the calculation grids. The order that we specify them is important. The first and second points define the direction of traffic flow. The distance from the second to the third point defines the width of the roadway on the driver's side.
Enable Snap (F9 on your keyboard), if it isn't already. The setting should still be 2.
For the first point defining our grid, click on the point 420,398, or enter those values in the field at the bottom of the screen just above the Snap value.
For the second point, click on or enter the X,Y, values 1390,428.
For the third point, click on or enter the X,Y values 1390,452.
At the left-hand end of the grid, you can see two little arrows indicating the direction of traffic flow.
Pan to the left a bit (hold your mouse wheel down and slide your mouse to the right), and you will see the positions of the Observers.
Notice that the grid is black. This indicates that it is our Luminance grid. (We didn't change the Luminance grid color from the default, black.)
Click on the drop-down arrow next to the Calculate button and change the calculation method to Direct Only Method.
Click the Calculate button.
Step 5 – Calculation grids: Label and Summary
The calculation took only a few seconds to complete, as there was no inter-reflected light to account for.
The results may be seen in the Statistics field. If it isn't open, click on the Statistics button on the bottom toolbar.
Scroll through the Statistics window, and notice that AGi32 has calculated all four roadway metrics defined in RP-8-00, as well as two others, Background Luminance and Target Luminance, which are components of the Visibility Level and STV calculations.
We can display a summary of the calculated statistics near the point-by-point grid.
In the Calculations Toolkit, click on the Edit Calc Points button. (Or on the Main Toolbar, select Modify - Calculations - Edit.)
There is a pick box attached to the cursor. Click on any point in the grid just placed.
In the Edit Calculation Points dialog, Luminance is selected by default (top of the list). Click on the Labeling button.
Working on the First Point tab, place a checkmark in the boxes for Calculation Points Label and Summary.
Change the Text Size to 5 feet.
Click OK to return to the Edit Calc Points dialog.
Click OK again to return to Model Mode.
The label is displayed just below the left-hand end of the calculation grid:
If this position is not convenient, the Label can be moved.
Click on the drop-down arrow next to the Delete Calc Points Label button and select Move. (Or,on the Main Menu Bar, select Modify - Calculations - Labels - Move.)
With the pick box attached to your cursor, click on any point in the calc grid.
Click on the upper-left corner of the Label as the Point to Move From.
Move the Label to a preferable location and click it into place. One possibility is shown here at left.
Note: To remove any ghost image remaining after the move, simply click on the Redraw command (looks like a pencil) on the Main Toolbar.
Step 6 – Change display to show other metrics
The current display is the pavement Luminance point-by-point. However, as mentioned previously, AGi32 has calculated all of the roadway metrics defined by RP-8-00. Project Manager provides the means for us to change what is displayed in Model Mode.
Click on the Project Manager button, located next to the Calculate button. (Read the information in the Hint that pops up and then close it.)
In the upper section of the dialog, place a checkmark in the Load column for Project_1.
From the Entities list, select CalcPts.
Notice that in the Vis (visibility) column, only the Luminance grid is checked. Also notice that the color of each grid is displayed in the far-right column.
Uncheck the box for Luminance, and put a checkmark in the Vis box for Illuminance instead.
Click OK to return to Model Mode.
The Illuminance (red) is now displayed, including its Label with the Illuminance grid's statistical summary:
The same process would be followed to display any of the other grids.
Step 7 – Use View Manager to create an additional window in which to view results
The View Manager command allows the user to see a project in more than one window simultaneously. An example would be a horizontal view and a vertical elevation view of a classroom, or a Zoomed Extents view and a zoomed-in view of a specific area.
Click on the View Manager on the Main Toolbar.
Type in a name for a new view: View 2.
Click the Add button.
Select Cascade and Resize Views.
Notice that the two view names are both highlighted. Any views whose names are highlighted in this dialog will be displayed in Model Mode.
View_1 and View 2 are now displayed in Model Mode. The "Cascade" choice causes them to be overlapped but both visible. You may move View 2 so that you can see more of View_1 at the same time.
Click once in View 2 to give it focus. Now click on the Zoom Extents++ button on the Main Toolbar.
View_1 is displaying the zoomed-in view that we previously created. View 2 is displaying the entire project:
Step 8 – Use Project Manager to assign calculation grids to specific views
Click on the Project Manager button.
Place a checkmark in the Load column for Project_1 if there isn't already one there.
In the Entity Type llist, select CalcPts.
There is a check mark in the Vis column for the Luminance grid. Place another checkmark in the Vis column, this time for Illuminance.
In the PtsView column, "All" is displayed for each of the calculation grids, indicating that they will be displayed in any view that is created, providing the Vis column is checked. If more than one grid is checked in the Vis column, the values will be displayed on top of each other, making them unreadable.
We will assign two of the grids to specific views, which will enable us to examine more than one view at a time.
In the Vis column, click on the down arrow next to "All" for the Luminance grid and select View 2.
Click on the down arrow next "All" for the Illuminance grid and select View_1.
The Illuminance point-by-point will be displayed in View_1, the Luminance point-by-point in View 2.
Click OK to return to Model Mode with these changes.
Examining the two views displayed shows that the point-by-point grid in View 2 is now black, indicating that it is the Luminance grid. You may zoom in on it to see the detailed information.
Notice also that the Observer positions are shown in View 2,to the left of the Luminance grid. There is no defined Observer for Illuminance, hence no Observer positions in the View_1 display.
The same process may be used to display the Veiling Luminance and Visibility grids in their own viewing windows.
In this tutorial we have covered some of the basic ways to use the Roadway Calculations Specification dialog. In summary, the user must select from one of several roadway standards, some of them international in nature, followed by selection of the roadway pavement type (R-Table choices). The number of lanes is specified and, the metrics to be calculated selected (or deselected), as well as several other options.
If any changes to the calculation grids are later desired, they may be made via the Edit Calc Points command in the Calculations Toolkit. (Or on the Main Menu Bar, Modify - Calculations - Edit).
We also covered the use of View Manager and Project Manager in enabling more than one view of a project, and in assigning different calculation grids to different views.
Additional information on roadway calculations, View Manager, and Project Manager may be found in AGi32's Help topics. You can get directly to the relevant topics by clicking on the Help button in any dialog box.